Printed Circuit Board 101

Printed circuit boards have many advantages, making it the better option when building electronic devices. In the past, electronic devices are connected with large wires. These wires are placed anywhere they could fit it in. This method was very messy and definitely occupies a huge amount of space. PCBs on the other hand, use a different approach. This circuit is mounted on a non-conductive board and is connected with small pathways called traces. PCBs are designed either through a computer using computer-aided software or can be done manually using a felt tip marker and graphing paper. Most prefer the computer aided version of designing boards since adjusting the layout is easier. You can easily make layout to fit any component and occupy a minimum amount of space possible.

Printed circuit boards
This so-called “miracle space saver” for electronic devices contains several parts. The most noticeable part of the PCB would be the traces. These thin lines are conductors (can carry electric charge from one place to another) and they serve to connect all the parts of the component in the circuit. Drilled on printed circuit boards are holes, the number of which is dependent to the chip which will be attached to it. The holes are created so that the electronic circuit is mounted completely without long leads and wires. The most important part of the PCB is the component itself. It can either be an integrated circuit (IC) or a microchip. The component performs the work of the circuit while the PCB provides the connection.

One can create their own printed circuit boards provided all materials needed are made available. Electronic circuit layout can be made through a computer using specific software. There is a lot of software readily available like PCB, Liquid PCB and Shortcut. A layout is important to ensure that a perfect arrangement of parts is created before making it permanent by soldering. The schematic layout of the circuit is literally printed on the board thus the name printed circuit boards. A raw circuit board has two layers: the non-conductive bottom made either of fiberglass or wood and the sheet of metal (most commonly copper) on top.

The layout created for the circuit is transferred to the copper plate in the circuit board using an etch-resistant substance. A good example of such substance would be asphalt, nail polish or the ordinary sharpie marker. A non-artist can use the ever-dependent laser printers to create the layout for the circuit board. The ink used in this type of printer is etch-resistant making it the best to use for your circuit board. Using a glossy paper print the layout created in the computer. Make sure that you selected the mirror printing option when printing. Place the glossy side of the paper with the print, on top of the copper plate. Iron the paper on the copper plate using ordinary clothes iron. The length of time depends on the type of paper and ink used. Once satisfied, immerse the board in hot water for a few minutes (maximum of 10 minutes). Remove the paper ensuring that the ink is left on the copper plate. You can now etch the board using a mordant, a mixture of acid and water. Remember to pour the acid on the water and not the other way around. The excess copper is removed and what is left is the design on the board. Holes are placed to attach the chip to the board.

Printed circuit boards are used in almost every electronic device in the market today. The biggest desktops to microwave ovens to small mobile phones use PCBs to organize wires inside the device. PCBs are indeed a revolutionary invention of man.

Printed circuit boards are a self-contained module of interconnected electronic components first introduced in the 1940s.

Picking Golf Drivers the Right Way: 5 Factors to Remember

Experienced golfers know that picking golf drivers based on their appearance is not the best way to ensure a good performance. In fact, there are more than one golfer in the field today struggling with their game to a poorly-picked driver. It’s not that the driver was of poor condition per se, it was just that it was not right for the person. Here are a few things to think about when looking for a golf driver.


The right amount of loft in a driver will determine how well you will play in a game. Most golfers think that golf drivers with lower lofts will result in a longer distance covered. The truth, however, is quite the opposite. If you have a swing speed of over 100 mph and have the tendency to hit the ball in a long way, the best loft will be at 12 degrees or less as this reduces backspin. If your swing speed is at 90 mph and less, it is best to find a golf driver with a higher loft so as to keep the ball airborne for as long as possible.


Golf driversAs of now, golf drivers have shafts either made in steel and graphite. Out of the two, graphite is the more expensive option but it is lighter in weight. This allows the golfer to transfer the full strength of their swing to the ball, making it fly as far as possible. As such, these drivers are ideal for beginners who are still building up on their swing speed. For experienced golfers, steel shafts are more ideal as the heavy weight allows for more control over the ball’s trajectory. If you have been playing for quite a while and can reach swing speeds of 100 mph and above, these drivers are considered best in optimizing your abilities.

Trajectory Rating

By definition, trajectory is the path that an object takes in flight depending on the amount of force inflicted on it and various factors found in the environment. For golf drivers, trajectory rating is dependent on the amount of loft they have and the center of gravity in the club head. Depending on the golf courses you tend to play in, it is best to pick a driver that has a clear trajectory of rating to clear a lot of obstacles like trees and sand traps.


For beginners, a driver with high forgiveness rating is quite important as this will improve their game considerably. After all, there is no telling how many obstacles they will get themselves into before they perfect the art of letting the ball fly through the air towards the intended target. To determine a driver’s forgiveness rating, take a look at the size of the club head. Larger club sizes tend to have higher forgiveness ratings as they allow for more control over the ball. Fortunately, manufacturers tend to print the forgiveness rating in the driver’s club or shaft to help golfers.


One of the most overlooked factors in buying golf drivers would have to be their length. Most of the time, you will find a golfer either swinging a club that is too long or too short for him to play properly. Either way, an incorrect club length will hinder your gameplay as it forces your body to adopt a position that prevents you from shifting your entire weight in each shot. When picking the right length, make sure that the club is roughly the same size to your arm. This way, you can be certain of swinging the club easily, leading to an accurate shot.

Author Bio:

Experienced golfers know that picking golf drivers based on their appearance is not the best way to ensure a good performance. Rockbottomgolf provide good TaylorMade Golf drivres that rules the particular tour.

How to Improve Employee Retention

Employees who leave unexpectedly can hurt the growth of a company, especially if the company is still at its early stages. Searching for a replacement and preparing them for the job can cost more than money and time. Other employees might be affected and elicit negativity at work.

What would a company owner do to prevent employees from leaving?

Effective Retention Strategies

How do you know how to retain good employees? First, you need to know what they’re searching for.

Here’s what the best employees desire:

• Regular feedback on his and the company’s performance

• Career development opportunities and opportunities for personal and professional growth

• Flexible work schedules that help employees achieve work-life balance

• An opportunity to contribute to the company, and recognition for doing so

• Benefits fit to the employee’s needs

• Good wage or salary, and a chance to make it higher over time

Key Techniques

Good employee retention strategies begin from the time employees are hired up to the moment that they leave the company. See how making little arrangements on your practices can have a major effect on retaining your employees:

• Hiring and Recruitment. You just don’t hire people who apply. Exert time and effort on your recruitment process. When your organization and your employees are a good match, then most likely retention won’t be an issue.

• On boarding and Orientation. You have to treat your employees right from the very beginning. Those critical moments spell the difference between long tenure and early departure of an employee.

• Training and Development. You have to train and develop your employees to grow with your organization. This is to help them become better individuals and to stay marketable in their chosen fields.

• Internal communication. You just don’t talk to your employees. You discuss things with them. This is to make sure that your employees stay with you. Employees have to know, and they have to be reminded from time to time on how the company is doing and if there’s something that they can do to help.

• Performance Evaluation. In relation to the point previously mentioned, when employees understand their strong points and their areas of improvement, both you and the company benefit.

• Pay and Benefits. Even though employees value career development and other compensation packages, good salary rates and benefits still matter.

• Termination and Outplacement. Employees who leave the company on good terms have high chances of recommending the organization to potential clients, and in doing such, help you attract and retain future staff.

Employee Engagement

Employee retentionYou have to make sure your employees are productive and committed in their work; employee engagement benefits you and the company, after all.

Hiring the right workers and staff will bring the possibility of them being committed to your company, and at the same time happy about their work. To make sure this connection isn’t lost, then employers must play their part most especially regarding communication.

Consider these suggested strategies:

• Be clear on what the organization stands for. The company’s objectives, brand, mission and vision must be understood by all and be front and center in the company’s activities and transactions.

• Understand differences between generations. As they say, different strokes for different folks. You should know what motivates every generation so you can get the best out of everyone.

• Communicate well; communicate often. Your staff needs to find out from time to time on how they are doing, as well as the company’s performance.

• Understand what it is that your employees need. Gather details regularly on how the employees are doing, and follow up on the information you gathered.

• Empower your employees in doing their best. Give all the things they need – resources, leadership and training – so they can realize their full potential.

It’s best practice to understand what engages employees during all phases of employment; that includes hiring, training, evaluating their performance and even beyond. It’s also easier to conduct employee retention strategies to those who are committed to the success of your company.

Why Hire an Agent as a Long Island Commercial Real Estate Representative

It is not easy to find Long Island commercial real estate since there are a lot of things to consider. That’s why it’s really more advisable to hire an agent to do the research for you. Here are a few reasons why hiring an agent can be a good option:

1. Saves Money

long island commercial real estateIn general, agents work for their clients. So if you are selling a property, an agent’s goal is to get the highest possible price for the property. If you are buying Long Island commercial real estate, however, the agent’s goal is to get you the best deal (i.e. lowest possible price). In the long run, you will be saving a lot of money if you hire an agent. This is because he will be doing all the fieldwork necessary to check all possible options. Remember that he also has the ability to put the asking price down because he has more knowledge of a property’s real worth.

2. Best Fit

Most agents are adaptable with their clients because they have to know the ins and outs of their clients’ businesses. In light of this, an agent will work to ensure that you will acquire the property that is most suitable for your company’s needs.

3. Full Disclosure

Since the agent is working for you, you can expect full disclosure from him. He can relay to you all the details of a particular property that you can’t possibly know if you had asked the sellers directly. Unlike the seller, the agent is not going to be biased in sharing the information he knows about the specific Long Island commercial real estate you are eyeing.

Agents actually have the means to make comparison reports about the different properties that you are interested in. They will be able to provide you with more information to help you make better decisions.

4. Confidentiality

You can be sure that an agent will handle all your requests with utmost confidentiality. He will do the communication for you so that you will not have any problems about going to and from a particular property every now and then. With this option, you can actually stick to your day job and just let the professional stick to his. You will no longer need to take a leave from work in order to check out a place in the middle of the week. An agent can do that for you.

5. Everybody Wins

You are in a win-win situation if you hire an agent because he has the means to go about the business without wasting a lot of time. He can even give you free services from related businesses like security specialists and utility providers.

Types of Lanyards

Custom LanyardsAre you thinking of a personalized lanyard? Check out our list of amazing products with a choice of fabrics, materials, themes and styles based on your preference. Have one that is unique and original yet maintain 100% guaranteed quality products.

There are a few online lanyard shops that offer you great deals from a wide variety of custom lanyards. Choose your lanyards depending on the type and form you prefer, from nylon to polyester, tubular to woven, or even include attachments like cell phone loops, carabiner hooks, disconnect buckles and so much more. All sorts and sizes are available all throughout the web.

Dye Sublimated Lanyards

From a wide array of types and products, you may choose from various dye-sublimated lanyards. Make sure that you are offered with the best quality of white polyester which is best for multi-color imprints. The heat and pressure process is best used for this material as it prevents the design from being scraped or worn.

Polyester Lanyards

One of the top selling custom lanyards which are being sold across the United States is the polyester lanyard. This is made of polyester twill and would definitely be comfortable when you wear it. The process of printing this type of custom lanyards is silk screen printing.

Woven Lanyards

The woven lanyards that are available also use the same high quality material as the polyester lanyards. This usually requires multiple colors instead of silk screening to make sure it lasts long. This is best for non-detailed logos and texts.

Tubular Lanyards

If you are on a tight budget, you may go for tubular lanyards since these are the least expensive custom lanyards sold worldwide. This is made of polyester twill as most businesses print your designs using dye sublimations and hot stamping method. That means it gives you comfort and still keep you in your budget.

Nylon Lanyards

Nylon lanyards are the highest quality products there are and are tough but definitely give you a smooth feel. This is best for custom lanyards if you like those intricate details on your lanyards. For printing your logos and text, the silkscreen process is suitable for this material.

Blank Lanyards

If you want plain and simple lanyards and take advantage of its mere purpose, this is also being sold worldwide. No prints and with the color, size and material you want. Any PMS color is available for this product and sometimes goes with a rear break-away connector. The prices of this type vary since the material cost changes, you have to call and place your order. Nonetheless, there are customer services available within the day.

A number of styles are available depending on your preference. If you like to mix and match those colors, there are different styles that would give you want. In terms of durability, the availability lanyards with screen printing styles as well as embossed are produced. With varying appearances and textures and a combination of colors and materials, you can choose from full color products, laser engraving, hot stamping and so much more.

You’d receive the lanyards which are mostly offered free of shipping and handling. Other printing companies require additional costs though especially if your area is quite far from their establishments. You can see hundreds and even thousands of samples that have truly satisfied customers like you guaranteeing high quality materials.

You may call their toll free number for further questions and suggestions. So what are you waiting for? Order now and get the lanyards of your choice. You won’t be surprised as you will receive what you asked for. Just relax and wait for your order once you answer the door.

How Important Are Military Coins?

There are many special traditions in the military – and one of the most special and highly anticipated traditions which enhances not only the harmony of the members of the military but also to uplift their self-esteem and spirits are giving away custom challenge coins. These custom challenge coins differ from one branch to another. They also confirm which unit in the military a soldier comes from.

These custom challenge coins, also known as military coins, unit coins or insignia coins can be made of the cheapest materials to the best and highest quality materials. Nowadays, these military coins are also collected by non-military members. A lot of business organizations and school clubs are making use of these coins for their group. However, they are sharing the same conception and notation with the military – that is to recognize and show gratitude to an exceptional individual in the group.

custom challenge coinsCompared to ordinary coins, these custom challenge coins can be larger or smaller in size. The sizes of these coins range from 1 inch to three inches. They can also be as thick as 1/2 inch and the designs vary depending on the user’s preferences. These coins are not only round in shape; they can be in the shape of ordinary shapes like square, rectangle or oblong to extraordinary ones like shield, pentagon, star or heart.

There are a lot of different kinds of metals which can be used to make these coins. These different metals can also give a different finishing for each coin. Metals which can be used are brass, copper, silver, nickel, and gold. Custom military coins made of gold are limited kinds and are mostly awarded to people with the highest recognition.

Different designs can also be imprinted or carved onto these military coins. There are some military coins which have the imprints of the military unit or logo while others have a picture of a prominent person. These designs can be imprinted either on one side or both sides of the coin. Almost all kinds of symbols and designs can be imprinted onto the coin. Different colours can also be added to enhance them.

The Challenge Coin Tradition

One of the most popular uses of military coins is the traditional game called the Military Coin Challenge. The Military Coin game started during the World War I where American soldiers used to play the “pfennig check-up” game. Once the game has been called out, each soldier within the vicinity were obliged to hand out a pfennig (the coin with the smallest monetary value in Germany during the World War). If a soldier cannot hand out a pfennig, he will then purchase some alcoholic drinks for those soldiers who were successful in handing out a pfennig during the coin check-up.

This old tradition was carried from generations to generations and was later changed from pfennig to military coins. This symbolic tradition is being practiced all over the military, especially for those who have a military coin. This tradition is also practiced to ensure that each soldier carries his or her own military coin at all times.

Any soldier of a military unit can start off the coin check-up. The challenge can happen anywhere, at any time of the day; whether it is in a bar, in an eating area, in a restaurant, in the sleeping quarters, in the field or in the locking room. If a coin bearer will not be able to show his or her own coin, then, that individual would need to face the consequences: And that is to purchase a round of alcoholic beverages for all the soldiers who successfully showed their coins.